Will utilities, such as NextEra Energy, Orsted, etc. play the major role in exiting fossil fuels and thus stopping or at least slowing down global warming?

You may focus on any aspect of the topic that interests you: current major companies, such as Orsted or NextEra Energy (any such company, anywhere in the world); transformations of the major oil companies into renewable energy companies; transformations of other types of companies into renewable energy companies; start-ups that could replace the utilities; rooftop solar installation companies that could bankrupt and then replace the big utilities; new technologies that could make the current grid system redundant or much less significant; etc. After an initial introduction, you should discuss the drivers of the renewable energy investment story that we have reviewed in class, and any others that you think are significant. We have discussed, or will discuss, in class: global warming (also called climate change); pollution and its role in pushing investment into renewable energy; the amount of money likely to be in play; government regulationsnational, state/regional, or municipal–including taxes and subsidies which may favor (or disadvantage) investment in renewable energy; comparative costs of renewable and fossil fuel technologies; the element of belief, sometimes called dreams, in major investment shifts; and the potential role of millions of electric car owners as a lobbying force to shift the world into a re-thinking of energy and pollution.

You should then discuss, even if briefly, at least one example of a utility, such as Orsted or NextEra Energy, shifting into renewables. Explain the technologies they have used, and whether or not they have wide application throughout the world. Make sure that you discuss the costs of these technologies and whether or not they have a cost advantage over other renewable energy technologies. You can then continue in more depth on that topic or explain why you think some other system (e.g., rooftop solar) or some other industry (e.g., the oil industry-transforming out of oil) will disrupt the energy industry and be the basis of the shift out of fossil fuels.

You should conclude your paper with a recommendation (to a major company or a big investor) on whether to invest or not in the industry/company that is the focus of your paper.

Your paper must be fully documented, as discussed in class. Papers without documentation will receive no grade and the course grade will be INC.
Papers with no or almost no references will get very low grades. Although I prefer clickable footnotes, you may use any standard reference system. Here is a description of them: https://pitt.libguides.com/c.php?g=12108&p=64729

Please see section C2.6:

C.2.6 Additional annual average energy-related investments for the period 2016 to 2050 in pathways limiting warming to 1.5C compared to pathways without new climate policies beyond those in place today are estimated to be around 830 billion USD2010 (range of 150 billion to 1700 billion USD2010 across six models17). This compares to total annual average energy supply investments in 1.5C pathways of 1460 to 3510 billion USD2010 and total annual average energy demand investments of 640 to 910 billion USD2010 for the period 2016 to 2050. Total energy-related investments increase by about 12% (range of 3% to 24%) in 1.5C pathways relative to 2C pathways. Annual investments in low-carbon energy technologies and energy efficiency are upscaled by roughly a factor of six (range of a factor of 4 to 10) by 2050 compared to 2015 (medium confidence). {2.5.2, Box 4.8, Figure 2.27}