In recent decades, sentencing practices have begun to move away from historically harsh, retributive approaches to crime such as mandatory minimum sentencing for drug and first-time offenders. Many states, including Oregon, have been clear about their intent to rely much less heavily on the use of prison beds in favor of community-based sentencing. Discuss in some detail the reasons behind such changes in sentencing. What goals are associated with this national trend? What evidence do we have that these efforts are effective?