Jefferson’s article on African Americans in Santa Monica’s Ocean Park Neighborhood

Dr. Alison Rose Jefferson’s new book Living the California Dream: African American Leisure Sites during the Jim Crow Era (2019) explores. Please read Chapter 3 of the book and then answer the following questions. Since this is a 30 page article, I have included on what pages you can find the answers to each question but please read the entire article so that you understand the history of African Americans in Santa Monica. Answers worth two points each.

1. What obstacles did African Americans face when claiming recreation and relaxation sites in Southern California (p. 72).

2. Why has the author chosen to write about African American formation and defense of leisure practices? In other words, what is the author’s thesis about why this topic is important? (p. 72)

3. Why did African Americans migrate from other parts of the U.S. to Santa Monica from the 1880s to post-World War II? (p. 76)

4. Who was Reverend James A. Stout? (p. 80)

5. In the first few decades of the twentieth-century, why was racism subtler in Los Angeles and Santa Monica, than the southern states? (p. 81)

6. What is the Inkwell? (p. 87)

7. What is La Bonita?” (p. 88)

8. Why were Black entrepreneurs interested in investing in the Ocean Frontage space during the Jim Crow era? (p. 90-91)

9. Who is Charles S. Darden? (p. 91-92)

11. What effect did the creation of beachfront private clubs in Santa Monica have on civil rights?( p. 96)

12. Who was Marilyn Williams Hudson? (p. 98)

13. According to Hudson, in the 1970s, what changed the atmosphere of the Ocean Park vicinity? And as a result, what happened to the memory of the African American history of the neighborhood? (p. 98)

14. What happened to the Phillips Chapel CME Church? (p. 100)

15. Who is Nicolas (Nick) Gabaldn? (p. 100-101)