Emily is excited to start her new job. She just finished her degree from the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and is going to work for a New York gem dealer who specializes in goods from Africa. After her initial training, Emily will join the company president on some gem sourcing trips to Tanzania, something she has always dreamed about doing. Shes also excited to work for a company that purchases gems from small miners in tiny African villages. These are hard-working poor people who live in very poor conditions, and she hopes to get to know some of them. Since Tanzania is one of the main gemstone suppliers to the United States, shes particularly pleased that some of the profit goes back to people who need it more than her. Having a strong sense of justice, Emily doesnt particularly like the idea of U.S. companies taking most of the profits. A few weeks into her job, Emily is a bit disappointed to learn that the trips to Tanzania are only made once or twice a year. And, her boss Mukkesh explains, they dont actually visit the regions where gemstones are mined. Rather, they purchase their gems in the large city of Arusha where the main gem dealers reside. These dealers, in turn, pay the miners through brokers. The miners themselves never leave their villages in the bush, Mukkesh says. In fact, hes never met a miner him- self, despite his many trips to Africa. Nor has he ever visited a mine. What she next learns is even more disappointing. It turns out that the gem dealers take a cut of the profits, and so do the Tanzanian brokers. The return to the miners themselves is thus far less than Emily expected. When she expresses her dissatisfaction about this, Mukkesh responds: Look, its not like were treating anybody badly. Like a lot of other businesses, we dont have much contact with the people we deal with.