Describe the 5 major ethical viewpoints (Egoism, Utilitarianism, Kantian, Divine Command, Virtue)

Todays health issues raise difficult questions and dilemmas for us as individuals, communities, a nation and global citizens. The answer to some of the most pressing questions almost always depends on what we think is important; on where we turn for moral guidance; on how we want to live our lives; on our ethical viewpoint.

The ability to understand and analyze decisions through multiple lenses is crucial in not only understanding global health choices but any other choices in the world today. Examining ethics in health (EIH) enables you to view health issues in a different way; questioning yourself and others.

Learning outcomes
1. Describe the 5 major ethical viewpoints (Egoism, Utilitarianism, Kantian, Divine Command, Virtue)
2. Articulate health issues via the ethical viewpoints

This assignment is divided into the following 4 parts.
All 4 parts will be combined into 1 final document.

Part 1: A US health issue (15 pts.)
In no more than 2 pages total, discuss 1 of the issues listed below that you are passionate about.
Why do you believe this topic is important, and why did you choose to explore it?
What makes this situation or dilemma complex? Why does it lack a clear-cut solution?
If you dont like any of the ideas listed below you can use one of your own.

Choose 1 of the following to discuss in Part 1:
1. Explain how the US health care system reflects market-driven, rather than policy-driven, values and priorities.
2. Identify the variety and differing interests of major stakeholders in the US health care system and how that affects delivery of care.
3. Discuss factors that affect US health care costs.
4. Discuss the role and current prevalence of mental health services in the U.S.
5. Explain how special interest groups in the US health care system, such as legislation, lobbyists, and politician priorities (reelection, campaign contributions, etc.) have influenced the US health care system.
6. Discuss the role of changing population demographics; such as the aging of the Baby Boomers into the 65 year old Medicare market, or the rise of the gig economy of part time jobs with no health care insurance, have on American values and assumptions on US health care.
7. Discuss what I consider the two most controversial provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, the Individual Mandate and Pre-Existing Conditions clause.

Part 2: Different viewpoints on this issue (30 pts.)
In no more than 2 pages, apply 2 of the 5 ethical viewpoints (described in the document posted below this) to your chosen topic. For each viewpoint that you apply please:
Detail the viewpoint.
What would it say is the right thing to do for your topic? Why would it say this?
In what situations might this viewpoint be useful for your topic?
In which situations might this viewpoint not be useful for your topic?
Which of the viewpoints is most useful for you? Please explain.

Part 3: Your position on this issue (50 pts.)
In no more than 3 pages, build an ethical argument for your position on this issue.
What is your position on this health issue? In other words, in an ideal world what would you do?
Which ethical viewpoint(s) is associated with your position?
Why is this viewpoint useful for you?
Why are the other viewpoints not useful for you?
What are the problems with your point of view?
Are there any assumptions, beliefs or expectations that may have an influence on your position related to this topic?
What are the implications of your position? In other words, how does your position apply to the larger context or the real world?

In summary, what have you learned about your own ethical values?
What have you learned about social contexts of problems?
What have you learned about ethics in global health?

Assignment Formatting Rules:
1. At least 1.5 spacing between lines but no more than double spacing.
2. Size 12 font for majority of paper unless you need larger for your individualized formatting.
3. Make sure you edit your paper for correct spelling and grammar

Part 4: Research on this issue (15 pts.)

Some Definitions to Start with from Cite This For ME (2007, June 20th) Works Cited vs. Bibliography vs. References. Retrieved from

A Works Cited list is an alphabetical list of works cited, or sources you specifically called out while composing your paper. All works that you have quoted or paraphrased should be included. Works Cited is generally used when citing sources using MLA format (Modern Language Association) style, and sources should be listed in alphabetical order by authors last name.
Example Works Cited entry:
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

A Reference List or References is very similar to a Works Cited list, and is a term used when citing sources using APA format (American Psychological Association) style. The page should be titled References, and is arranged alphabetically by author last name.
Example References entry:
Middlekauff, R. (2007). The glorious cause: The American Revolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

A Bibliography, on the other hand, differ greatly from Works Cited and References lists. In Works Cited and References, you only list items you have actually referred to and cited in your paper. A Bibliography, meanwhile, lists all the material you have consulted in preparing your essay, whether you have actually referred to and cited the work or not. This includes all sources that you have used in order to do any research. Bibliographies are often used in Chicago and Turabian citation styles. They usually contain a long reference that has a corresponding footnote within the body of the paper.
Example Bibliography entry:
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007.

There are 3 required sections in this part of your assignment and they need to be completed as you research and use these sources not before or after. Its easier to keep track of the sources you use as you go, rather than waiting until the end and trying to track down what you used to build your references.

3 sections required in your final paper for Part 4:
1. Your Bibliography, which needs at least 6 reputable references. This list will go at the end of your paper.
2. Your Works Cited with at least 4 sources from above. This will go after your Bibliography.
3. Your in-text citations. These go in the body of your paper. These are the sources that were listed in your Works Cited. Please google for examples on in-text citations.

No fluff sources like magazine articles, letters to the editor, or websites that dont reference their own research or sources and PLEASE show me that you did not just perform a Google search and chose the first 6 sources that came up. Wikipedia is an excellent resource, but in itself is not referenceable material, which is why instructors wont allow you to use it as such. It is however a quick and easy starting point to find other resources to use. As you read through a Wikipedia page, youll notice that the information is tagged with numbers that correspond to the reference material that is listed at the end of the page. You can use Wikipedia to start, but you must go to those actual sources for your information.